Occult and Qabbalistic Symbolism in Rock Music
Rock and roll music has long rumored to contained symbolism related to the Occult, Magic, and Qabbalism.
OCCULT AND QABBALISTIC SYMBOLISM IN ROCK MUSIC
Original Research By: Freeman Fly
The music of rock and roll has long been rumored to contain occult content.
Erik Davis, for example, has written an exquisite and definitive book on the occult content of Led Zeppelin IV. This book, which describes the Led Zeppelin IV album track by track, provides a close examination of this classic album, which has sold more than 23 million copies in the USA alone, where it is the third highest selling album of all-time, behind only Michael Jackson’s Thriller album from 1982, and The Eagles Their Greatest Hits (1971-1975), from 1976. The band’s most infamous track, Stairway To Heaven, which is the number one most-requested song in the history of American radio, is embedded with much more than the alleged “Here’s to my Sweet Satan” backwards masking vocal track.
For our purposes here, I will take a look at the occult and Qabalistic symbolism of various rock bands, who have all in one way or another, incorporated this into every aspect from their music, to their on-stage costumes and concert performances. The best place in which to begin, is with the music and presentation of the rock band KISS. They been on my mind since they released an authoritative DVD box set on Halloween 2006. KISS has been long-rumored to be an acronym of “Knights in Satan’s Service,” and I have really wondered about this throughout the past thirty years of the band’s outrageous levels of excess and success, especially since I learned that no one on this planet is allowed the highest levels of success unless they become part of the global elite group of occult practitioners.
The rock band KISS contains many correspondences to the occult and Qabbalism, both in their performances, and their costuumes and facial make-up.
The four members of KISS, each in their own way, portray the world of the occult in the alter-egos selected by each band member.
Paul Stanley, the Star Child, is a perfect representation of the mythological Greek God Dionysius.
Paul Stanley, the self-professed ‘Star Child’ is actually representative of the Greek God of Dionysius, a hermaphroditic character which incorporates both male and female features. The on-stage spokesman for the band, Paul Stanley often dressed in frilly stage clothing, and his makeup incorporated the pentagram over his right eye, a symbol related to the right-hand path of magick. His red lipstick represents the feminine Dionysian energy, and rather than having both male and female features, I have personally always seen Paul Stanley as an androgynous figure, having neither the male or the female coming to the fore.
Stanley presents himself on stage in a non-threatening manner, which is acceptable to both the male and female fans of the band. To the men, he represents the twenty-four hour per day rock and roll party animal, who remains non-threatening enough that he does not appear to steal the women from their boyfriends and husbands of the audience. To the women, he represents himself as a consummate lover, and he will find his own mate, and does not need to steal anyone’s love from the audience. Particularly in band publicity shots, he strikes clearly effeminate poses, which are reminiscent of high-fashion photographs, and yet, with his open-chest costuming, he is clearly a virile man-like figure.
Dionysius is an interesting connection to Stanley, as the Greek God Dionysius was originally a God of wine, but later became a God of vegetation and warm moisture. As the stories about him increased, so did the areas of his influence – which include wine, ecstasy, cross-dressing, sensuality, rebellion, and drama. Stanley is frequently portrayed wearing a feminine hair-style and attire, and viewed as an effeminate, yet sexually potent male. This is rather intriguing, as the wine obviously represents partying, an ongoing theme of the band’s music, and the basis of their biggest hit, which contains the lyric “I wanna rock and roll all night, and party every day.” The ecstasy is the ecstasy of the sex act, as is the sensuality built into Stanley’s on-stage persona. The cross-dressing refers to the androgyny of his alter-ego, and Stanley was often seen on stage wearing a feather boa and a long black robe. The rebellion and drama of Dionysius is built into the character, and is also a reference to the KISS concerts themselves, which were spectacles of bombast and Las Vegas theatre.
"Space Ace" Frehley is a perfect representation of an Ancient Astronaut.
Spaceman lead-guitarist Ace Frehley played the role of the ancient astronaut, with his makeup design looking like a set of Seismic or Electrical Wavelengths dancing across his face. In keeping with this theme, ‘Space Ace’ Frehley wrote and performed songs with related titles – Shock Me, Rocket Ride, Into The Void, et al. Songs that hinted at his alcohol and drug use and abuse were Cold Gin, Ozone, Snow Blind – and songs that hinted at his various problems of driving a car – Speedin’ Back To My Baby, and Wiped-Out. On stage, Frehley ambled around seemingly in a daze, with his detached spaced-out persona providing a perfect counter-balance to Paul Stanley’s on-stage extroversion.
Vinnie Vincent painted an Egyptian Ankh on his face, a symbol of the fluids of life.
When Frehley left the band, he was replaced by a guitarist named Vincent Cusano, who used the stage-name of Vinnie Vincent. Vincent was dressed up in makeup that had seen an Egyptian Ankh scrawled across his face. The Global Elite always go back to Egypt, and further back to the star system of Sirius. The Egyptian Ankh hieroglyph is symbolically representative of the concept of life. From these life-giving and life-sustaining liquids of semen and water, air, and food, the life-force includes verdant plant growth and sexual abundance. The Ankh became associated with these things by the ritual purification found in the dismantled red granite shrine found at the Temple of Karnak. Instead of streams of water, Egyptian hieroglyphs contain streams of Ankhs covering the Kings of Khemit, the true name of Egypt, as spoken and written by the ancients themselves.
The Ankh became associated with air through the breath-of-life, which in the case of the KISS replacement guitarist, it meant that the band would continue to have life, even in the leaving of the original guitarist Frehley, who had allegedly left to pursue a solo career. Finally, the Ankh symbol represents a person, with the loop forming the head, the crossbar the arms, and the lower section of the symbol representing the body of the human being. Thus, it can be said that it is us humans ourselves that provide the breath of life to our human offspring.
Peter Criss dressed up as the Egyptian Goddess Bast.
KISS drummer Peter Crisscoula, who went by the stage name of Peter Criss, was symbolized by feline face makeup. This relates both to the familiars used by witches, the black cat, and also harkens back to Egypt once more, with the Cat-goddess Bast. Bast protected her offspring, and destroyed the Sun’s serpent enemy Apophis. Bast was known to be associated with the Eye of the Moon, and this is why Peter Criss was often photographed in simulated nighttime settings, with the full moon on display.
In keeping with this night time theme, Paul Stanley sings:
"I'm the King of the Night Time World!"
Of Irish-Italian descent, Criss wore a large number 3 on the back of his on-stage vest. He also signed his autograph with a circled number 3 after his name. One would assume that this was simply a reference to the Christian trinity of Joseph, Mary, and Jesus. However, going back to Egypt once more, one discovers that many centuries before the Christian trinity, there were Osiris, Isis, and Horus. Both of these trinities were merely symbolic representations of father (the Sun), mother (the Moon), and child (the resultant energy from the two). Qabalistically, the number 3 relates to the triangle, which was the basic form of the Egyptian pyramid. It also relates to the number of mother letters in the Hebrew alphabet; aleph, mem, shin -- and is also the number of alchemical elements; sulphur, mercury, and salt.
In esoteric numerology, the number 3 relates to the concept of time; as in the past, present, and future. Other occultic expressions of the number 3 can be found in Neptune’s spear, which is a trident, containing three tines. Pluto’s dog Cerberus had 3 heads. In Plato’s Timaeus, the Divine Triad is called Theos (God), Logos (the Word), and Psyche (the Soul). The name of Adam is of three letters; A, D, and M. These are the initials of Adam, David, and the Messiah. Finally, there are three keys that God keeps to himself, and that no man can use; the Key of Life, the Key of Rain and the Weather, and the Key of Resuscitation of the Dead.
KISS' Eric Carr was the Fox, a symbol associated with the Scandinavian mythology of the God Odin.
When Peter Criss left the band, he was replaced with Paul Caravallo, who used the stage name of Eric Carr, who wore the makeup of a fox. The word vixen, which means fox-like relates to the handmaidens of the Norse God Odin. In Scandinavian mythology, the Valkyrie Vixens were the brave and powerful handmaidens of the Nordic god Odin. The Valkyries flew on winged horses over battlefields and waited to select warriors, who died bravely in battle, to live for eternity in Vahalla, the Norse equivalent of the Heaven of the Christians.
The fox has a long history of magic and beguiling associated with it. Because the fox is a creature of the night, it is often imbued with supernatural powers. It is most visible at the hours of dawn and dusk, the 'between times' when the magical world intersects with the world in which we live. There are American Indian stories in which a hunter accidentally discovers his wife is a fox. This is symbolic of the idea that magic is born within female energies, and unless a man recognizes the magic of the feminine, in himself and in others, it will certainly lead to his own destruction. This is a constant reminder to all ceremonial magicians, that practicing without full knowledge of the system and its’ implications, is done at the individuals’ own peril.
Gene Simmons was the perfect vampire bat-creature that spewed blood and fire on stage, and sang about being a demon.
KISS’ bass player Gene Simmons plays the part of the fire-breathing, blood-spewing demon vampire bat-thing. On stage, he stalks around wagging his obscenely long tongue, inviting all women to indulge in fantasies of receiving oral sex from a demonic figure. God of Thunder is his theme song, which features lyrics such as “I was raised by the demons, trained to reign as The One,” and “I am the Lord of the Wastelands, a modern day man of steel, I gather darkness to please me, and I command you to kneel before the God of Thunder and rock and roll, the spell you’re under will slowly rob you of your virgin soul.”
The song also contains the voices of children, mixed into the background music tracks. This adds greatly to the malevolent atmosphere, with these children yelling out “He’s the Devil!” at 0:23 from the beginning of the song, and “But, I don’t want to go to Hell” at 1:30. The song contains a tormented Frehley guitar solo, and the rest of the song feels likewise tortured. Various moans and screams can also be heard from within the chaos of the song, which Simmons plays up to the hilt. God of Thunder has long been a concert staple, in which Simmons performs his blood-spewing bass guitar solo, which climaxes in Simmons’ belching fire.
A stage photo of Gene Simmons.
Simmons plays up his “Almost Human” on-stage persona, with the lyrical content of some of his most identifying songs. Audience members that want to behave in a bad way sexually are attracted to Simmons’ Calling Dr. Love track, where he plays the male figure our teenage daughters better not bring home! He also sings of having sex with underage girls in Christine Sixteen, and over the course of the past thirty years, has become an outright sex symbol with all manner of the bands female fans. Simmons’ sexual prowess is legendary. Early on, he began to keep a Polaroid photo library of all the groupies he has slept with while out on the road. In his 2001 autobiography KISS AND MAKE UP, the total number of women he has slept with was listed simply as “4,600 and counting.”
The Gene Simmons Family; Gene Simmons, wife Shannon Tweed, and (back row) children Nick and Sophie.
Simmons has spent the past twenty-two years living with and having two children with Shannon Tweed, a former Playboy centerfold model and Playmate of the Year 1982, a woman he had met at the infamous Playboy Mansion in 1984. A completely self-made man, we are led to believe, he was able to create 2,500 licenses out of the KISS brand-name; more than those of The BEATLES and Elvis Presley! The KISS-Army is marketed as a lifestyle choice, and there are leather jackets and vests, perfumes and fragrances, household knick-knacks, and a full catalog of fan memorabilia, all emblazoned with the KISS logo – burning that marketing message into the minds of every member of that Army, who are more fanatical than most music fans out there.
The BEATLES were a popular culture phenomenon that got tens of millions of teens to grow their hair, take psychedelic drugs, and smoke pot. John Lennon once famously quipped that "The BEATLES are more popular than Jesus."
A decade before KISS, The BEATLES were changing the way in which young people interacted with their parents and the ways of old. The BEATLES were much more than a musical act, they became the first popular culture phenomenon. Not only did The BEATLES inspire several generations of musicians, they were the first to grow their hair long, grow facial hair, smoke marijuana, and take many LSD trips to influence their consciousness – and they encouraged the world’s younger people to do the same. The resultant changes to society created a Generation Gap, just as the Global Elite had planned.
The BEATLES are said by some to have been a product of the Tavistock Institute, sent to destroy the family unit, and place a lack of trust in the older, square generation. When I think about how well everything they did was crafted, it is hard for me to continue to believe that manager Brian Epstein was able to fund The BEATLES with his NEMS record stores.
So where did all that money suddenly come from?!
Occult student John Lennon placed the photograph of infamous Thelemic magician Aleister Crowley on the album cover of 1967’s Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band (Crowley is the second from the left in the farthest back row). Thelema is the Greek word for WILL, the primary magickal vehicle under this system, which contains the following words to live by:
"Do what Thou Wilt shall be the Whole of the Law.
Love is the Law, Love under Will."
During the later period of The BEATLES, John Lennon and his wife Yoko Ono began appearing in public while inside a BAG. This was an example of Lennon’s sardonic wit. He claimed that they were doing this for PEACE and the revelation of a grand mystery, which was coincidentally the theme of Crowley’s book The Vision & The Voice, which concerned itself with Enochian Angelic magick of the 30 Aethyrs of the Angelic Realm. Aethyr 28 is coincidentally called BAG, which relates to peace and the revealing of a great mystery of the Universe, an awakening, if you will. The 28th Aethyr relates to the Tarot trump named The Star, which likewise concerns itself with consciousness that transcends the known space of our Universe, and the sustaining fluids of life itself.
The Crowley-Harris Tarot trump The Star symbolized a spiritual life-force that was larger than the known Universe itself.
The scarab beetle in Ancient Egypt symbolized the first stage of the Sun, the Dawn, or the birth and emergence of the Sun after a night of darkness was known as Kepher, which means ‘The Driller,’ and was also associated with a shift towards higher consciousness. Those who have taken LSD have reported consciousness shifts, from the lower to the higher. The shift to a higher consciousness was a major theme of the drug use from the 1960’s. With instruments of popular culture as The BEATLES happened to be, they could reach a much wider swath of society with their music, which was crafted with string quartets and songs based on the theories of classical performance, and was found to be pleasing to the ears of both the young and old.
The Rolling Stones all dressed up in their Occult Gear for the 'Their Satanic Majesties Request' album, which was released in 1968, only ten days after The BEALES White Album was itself released.
After The BEATLES, came the bad-boy Rolling Stones, who were known to be dabblers in both heavy drug use and magick, with their own 1967 answer to The BEATLES’ Sgt. Pepper; an album entitled Their Satanic Majesties Request. The album cover featured the Rolling Stones band members to all be dressed in psychedelic costumes, but it is Mick Jagger himself who is wearing the long dark cloak of the black magician, with the pointed hat featuring the moon and stars. The following December 1968, the Rolling Stones replied to The BEATLES once more. Their song Sympathy For The Devil was released on December 5, 1968. Within twenty-four hours, the band was on stage at Altamount Speedway in California. During the song Under My Thumb, an 18 year old African-American named Meredith Hunter was beat to death with pool cues, by members of the Hell’s Angels security detail, as the band played helplessly on stage.
Let’s just say that Karma has a way of slapping people in the face.
One other connection between Mick Jagger and the occult was that Jagger had worked on a version of the 'soundtrack' for Thelemite film director Kenneth Anger's film 'Lucifer Rising,' a film that was inspired by Aleister Crowley's poem 'Hymn to Lucifer.' The Jagger version was released as 'Invocation of My Demon Brother.' The interested reader can check out this film and its' soundtrack which is available on YouTube.com. In fact, Kenneth Anger claims that his discussions with Mick Jagger concerning the second attempt at a soundtrack for Lucifer Rising are what led to the writing of the 'Sympathy For The Devil' song, which was later most famously recorded by Guns n' Roses. In fact, it had been the last-ever release of an original studio track by Guns n' Roses, a band who had been the biggest in rock for a four year period, from 1988-1992.
Continuing on with the Qabalistic themes, the rock group STYX was named after a river leading toward Hell. Perhaps then, it is little surprise that their biggest song is entitled Come Sail Away? Or that another of their songs in keeping with this theme is Boat on the River, which was on an album entitled Cornerstone, which is the part of the building dedicated by Freemasons, as part of a cornerstone laying ceremony. While some may refuse to believe that these things are purposefully related, I can tell you that once one starts finding this symbolism literally everywhere, it is very difficult to dismiss as mere happenstance.
Ozzy Osbourne once bit off the head of a live bat while on stage in January 20, 1982 in Des Moines, Iowa USA.
Next, we have Ozzy Osbourne, who suddenly rocketed from a music history footnote, to a full-out legend. OZ is a reference to the lowest level of Hell, as seen in the written classic texts of Milton. Ozzy has a song about Aleister Crowley, entitled Mr. Crowley. However, Crowley identified OZ by the word “strength,” which equates Qabalistically to a double-seven, or 77. Book 77 in Crowley’s canon is known as Book OZ, or The Thelemic Rights of Man. Like Gene Simmons, there is a legendary incident that forever tied Ozzy Osbourne to the vampire bat. During a January 20, 1982 concert in Des Moines, Iowa – someone threw a live bat on stage. Ozzy, thinking it was a rubber bat, decided to do something outrageous. He bit off the head of the bat, which forced him into a local Emergency Room for a rabies shot after the concert. While it is not known if this was done on purpose or not, with Ozzy knowing full well what he was doing, one thing IS for sure – the incident has forever connected Ozzy to the vampire bat.
The cover of this album contained an inverted cross on the wall in background, and contained a song about smoking pot, 'Flying High Again.'
Additionally, we have the 1981 Ozzy Osbourne album, Diary of a Madman, the cover art for which contains an inverted 'Satanic' cross, which hangs on the wall in the background. This album, as of 1994, has sold 3 million copies in the United States alone. Diary contains a song called Flying High Again, which Ozzy introduced in concert by saying “This is a number called Flying High Again, so keep on smoking them joints!” Thus, we once again see rock and roll music tied together with drug use. Therefore, with one meaning of OZ being a reference to the lowest level of Hell, it is more than fitting that Ozzy uses Satanic and Demonic imagery in his album artwork.
Ozzy had first appeared in the classic heavy-metal band Black Sabbath, which is both a reference to a Boris Karloff film of the same name, and to a black Sabbath (a black mass or a meeting with the Devil). In the Sabbath song Sweet Leaf, Ozzy once more had paid tribute to his smoke of choice, marijuana. The song, which begins with someone choking on a mouthful of smoke, was included on the 1971 Black Sabbath album Master of Reality. Many others of the bands songs referenced drugs and drug use, both explicitly and implicitly.
The four Led Zeppelin symbols associated with their 1971 album Led Zeppelin IV, were all related to the occult magick practiced by the band members.
Finally, Led Zeppelin has perhaps the single most legendary connections with the worlds of Qabbalism and the occult. The most curious of these connections involves the sigils that appeared on Led Zeppelin IV -- these are shown above. These four symbols represented each band member, and were selected to refer to their position in the band, lyricist Robert Plant had the feather of the scribe, and appeared to be the only identifiable symbols on the entire original album package, when the album was released in November 1971. Thus, the album was known as Led Zeppelin IV, ZoSo, or Four Symbols.
The first of the band’s sigils was that of Jimmy Page. While Jimmy Page never personally revealed the basis of this ZoSo symbol, it had been discovered by New Zealand fan and In The Light website owner Duncan Watson to be an ancient symbol of Saturn, the astrological Sun sign under which Page was born. This symbol of ZoSo most famously appeared in the 1557 alchemical grimoire by J. Cardan, entitled Ars Magica Arteficii. Additionally, Page wore three astrological symbols on the pants he wore on stage – on the top was the symbol for Capricorn, Page’s Sun sign (he was born on January 9, 1947), in the middle was the symbol for Scorpio, Page’s ascendant sign, and on the bottom was the symbol for Cancer, Page’s Moon sign.
Next, we have the symbol for John Paul Jones. This symbol is known as the triquetra, which is a circle intersected by three Vesica Pisces symbols. This is a sign that is used is exorcise evil spirits, and it is significant that Jones was the only member of Led Zeppelin to be completely spared of the tragedy and turmoil that visited the other three. Taken from a book of runes, it symbolizes a man of confidence and competence. The role of Jones in the band was that of a dependable songwriter and arranger. While Page, Plant, and Bonham each experienced the Karmic effects of their own occult practice, Jones was completely exempt from these problems. Page spent many years addicted to Heroin, Plant lost his son to a sudden illness, and Bonham himself died of alcohol poisoning prior to the American tour for their 1979 album In Through The Out Door.
Next, we have the sigil of drummer John Bonham. An early symbol of the trinity, the three interlocking rings can also relate to the drums he plays, and the earthly element. The earthly plane supports all human, animal, and plant life – and this is the role that Bonham played in the band, the supportive beat of the rhythm section. In Egyptian lore, this symbol represented Osiris, Isis, and Horus – the first known of the Father-Mother-Child triune. In Christian lore, this trinity became the Joseph-Mary-Jesus trinity.
Lastly, we have the symbol for Robert Plant. This is the feather of Maat, the Egyptian goddess of truth, justice, and cosmic order or balance. The husband of Maat was the scribal God Thoth, the God of writing, knowledge, and truth. For a poet, the feather of Maat is a fitting symbol. In his lyrics, Plant frequently mentioned and referred to Tolkien and Druidic themes. In the lyrics for his 1979 song Carouselambra, several references were made to Thelema, the belief system of Jimmy Page, who is a high-ranking member of the O.T.O. – Ordo Templi Orientis.
Jimmy Page has been long known to be a ceremonial magician, and a member of the OTO, where he holds the position of Magus, which is the 9˚=2˚ degree. Like Mick Jagger, Page also recorded a version of the Lucifer Rising soundtrack for Kenneth Anger, a fellow member of the O.T.O., the fraternal magickal order to which Page belongs. Page once was a long time owner (from 1971 to 2004) and resident of Crowley’s Boleskine House, which is on the shores of Loch Ness.
For thirty years, Jimmy Page owned Crowley's Boleskine House, which is located on the shore of Loch Ness.
I have seen the concerts of Led Zeppelin, Jimmy Page, and Robert Plant in concert as solo artists and as Page and Plant, in 1996. I had seen Page in The Firm in 1986, and on his Outrider tour in 1988. During these shows, Page performed his in-concert guitar solo by using a Theremin, lasers, and a Bass Violin bow. These solos have been performed as magickal banishings, where the magickal banishing rituals of the pentagram and hexagram were performed, I had noticed by the placement and movements of Page's arms and guitar postures. Also, on the Unledded DVD, Robert Plant moans and vibrates "I-A-O" in the middle of the show, which is the Thelemic trinity.
During Stairway to Heaven in concert, the fanfare section is always performed by Page pointing his guitar neck straight into the air, pointing towards the Moon. This was Page’s way of invoking the magical energies of the Moon, which are feminine energies. The ZoSo glyph contains the counterbalance of the Moon, with the circles with the dots in the center, which is a symbol of both the Sun and the feminine energies, because on another level this symbol is representative of the female breast, and the nourishment of life that it produces for the purposes of suckling.
One final representation of Page’s magickal practice was within the fact that he made sure that in the inner groove of the initial pressing of Led Zeppelin III, which contained the following wording:
“Do What Thou Wilt Shall Be The Whole of the Law”
And on the LP’s side two, the following appeared in the inner groove area:
“So Mote It Be”
The above examples of occultism and Qabbalism as symbolism in rock and roll are only but a few of the many examples that I could provide. Whether this embedded symbolism is there as mere coincidence, or is there for a definite reason, it has had an impact on the listeners of such music, whether in concert, or in the comfort of their own home. I have avoided obvious choices, such as Satanic black metal groups Venom and Mercyful Fate, who have such small audiences, that the typical reader is likely to NOT know whom they are, and of which their music consists. Instead, I have brought forth some new data about The BEATLES and other groups of which the typical reader IS likely to know, and know very well. I would be interested in what my readers think of what I have written here, and I invite everyone to send me their comments at the e-mail address which is listed on the front page of this website.
© 2006 Kentroversy Papers
All rights reserved. Used with permission.
NOTE: I would also like to offer a special thank you to my friend Freeman Fly, of The Freeman Perspective, who had done the original research for this article.
The following sources have been used in the writing of this Kentroversy Paper …
The Freeman Perspective
Jimmy Page and Kenneth Anger - Lucifer Rising
Andrews, Ted – Animal-Speak: The Spiritual & Magical Powers of Creatures Great & Small (1993)
Cardan, J. – Ars Magica Arteficii (alchemical grimoire) (1557)
Davis, Erik – Led Zeppelin IV ZoSo (2005)
Godwin, David – Godwin’s Cabalistic Encyclopedia; 3rd Edition (1979, 1989, 1994)
Koch, Rudolph – The Book of Signs, pgs. 32-33 (1930)
Mehler, Stephen S. – The Land of Osiris: An Introduction to Khemitology (2001)
Mehler, Stephen S. – From Light Into Darkness: The Evolution of Religion in Ancient Egypt (2005)
Simmons, Gene – KISS and Make-Up (2001)
Watson, Duncan – Led Zeppelin Fan Site http://www.inthelight.co.nz
Westcott, William Wynn – Numbers: Their Occult Power and Mystic Virtues; 3rd Edition (1890, 1902, 1911)
Wilkinson, Richard H. – The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt; (2003)
Wilkinson, Richard H. – Symbol & Magic in Egyptian Art; (1994)
Koenig, Peter R. - The Laughing Gnostic: David Bowie and the Occult (December 2006)
Music is Magic